Here, we focus on the professional duties and responsibilities of women physicians in the context of parenting. Specific topics include educational opportunities for mothers in medicine such as fellowships, additional degrees, and Certificates of Added Qualification. We discuss the common challenges of jobs for physician-parents, including part-time versus full-time schedules, salary, benefits, overnight and weekend responsibilities, administrative and staff support, and conference travel. For faculty with academic careers, we discuss strategies for navigating promotion timelines with the concurrent demands of a family. Finally we will consider potential policy changes that could better support the careers of mothers in medicine.